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Home | Article | Biodiesel

Transesterification


Fig1. Transesterification

Triglycerides derived from vegetable oil, algae or fat were transesterified to Biodiesel (Fig.1). The transesterification of vegetable oils produced of fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerol. Several process of catalyst that used in Biodiesel production will be discussed below.

Acid-catalyzed process by sulfonic, sulfuric acids, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid. These catalysts give high yields in alkyl ester, but the reactions are slow. This process suitable for oil which many free fatty acid and high water content.

Basic-catalyzed process by sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and potassium carbonate. This process is faster than acid-catalyzed reaction. And it is cheaper so, it popularly process to produce Biodiesel.

However, acid and basic catalyzed process have disadvantages such as hard to separate glycerol from product, interferences of free fatty acid and water in the reaction, elimination of the catalyst.

Lipase-catalyzed process can solve the problems from acid and basic catalyzed process. This process is easier derived glycerol from product and complete reaction. But important factor is more expensive cost of enzyme.

Super critical fluids process, vegetable oil was heat to 350OC then reaction with supercritical methanol 240 minutes. From the research, Rapeseed oil produced by this method gives higher yield than conventional production.

Now, the production of Biodiesel industry used basic-catalyzed process (Fig.2).

 

 

 
 
 

In the process produced a mixture of fatty acid alkyl ester, glycerol, and intermediates; monoglyceride, diglyceride, methanol. So, the product will determine of FAME and other components before use in the engine.

Vegetable oil and animal fat composed difference saturated and unsaturated triglycerides that effect to Biodiesel properties. The perfect Biodiesel must be from monounsaturated fatty acid, found in palm oil, peanut canola. However, it must test other properties such as cold flow properties, cloud point.

Biodiesel 100% called B100 can not used in diesel engine because it is a good solvent, destroy rubber part. In Thailand, Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy decided a quality standard of Biodiesel (Fatty acid methyl ester) for used in diesel fuel not more than 5%. That is accepted from Car Company to use in normal car, not necessary adaptation.



Biodiesel

 

Biodiesel
Transesterification
Results of Biodiesel
Benefits
Characteristic and Quality Regulation of Biodiesel
Biodiesel -- AA6300
Biodiesel -- GC2010
Biodiesel -- ICPS8100
Biodiesel -- XRF1800

Biodiesel
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