Page 5 - Fundamental Guide to GCMS
P. 5

Table of Contents



            Abbreviations and Symbols -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
            Chapter 1  Basics of GC ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
              Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
                Principles and Applications ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
              Instrumentation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 13
                Columns -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
                Detectors ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
            Chapter 2  Introduction to GCMS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
              Fundamentals --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24
              Instrumentation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 28
                Interface and Vacuum Pumping System ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
                Ion Source ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31
                  Electron Ionization ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 31
                  Chemical Ionization ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 36
                  Comparison of Ion Sources  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44
                Detector -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46
                Important Parameters to Note When Using a GCMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48
            Chapter 3  Mass Analyzers in GCMS and GC-MS/MS Systems ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50
              Overview of Mass Analyzers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
                Magnetic Sector MS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
                Quadrupole MS ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 53
                  Scan and Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) Modes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
                Time-of-Flight (TOF) MS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
                Comparison of Mass Analyzers in GCMS systems ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 59
              Introduction to MS/MS Systems --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 60
                Collision-induced Dissociation (CID) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 61
                Various MS Modes for MS/MS System ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62
              Types of MS/MS Systems and Their Key Characteristics -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64
                Triple Quadrupole MS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 64
                Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) MS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65
            Chapter 4  Challenges, Trends and Developments of GCMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
              Overview --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67
              Current Trends: GCMS Configurations and their Applications ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
                Multi-Dimensional GC (MDGC) and 2-Dimensional GCMS (2D-GCMS) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 70
                Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC)-GCMS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 71
                On-Column Derivatization ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
                Sample Introduction System-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 72
                Twin Line MS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 75
              Key Developments in Shimadzu’s GCMS: Ultra-Fast Mass Spectrometry (UFMS) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
              Future Trends of GCMS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 84
              Shimadzu’s Comprehensive GC and GCMS Solutions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
              Pioneering New Frontiers in GCMS: Shimadzu GCMS TQ-8050 NX ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87
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